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ⓘ 丹·扎哈维




丹·扎哈维
                                     

ⓘ 丹·扎哈维

丹 扎哈维 (Dan Zahavi),丹麦哲学家,目前任哥本哈根大学哲学教授。

                                     

1. 生平

扎哈维出生于丹麦哥本哈根,早期在哥本哈根大学攻读现象学。1994年,扎哈维在比利时鲁汶大学的胡塞尔档案馆取得博士学位,导师是鲁道夫 贝内特(Rudolf Bernet)。 1999年,扎哈维在哥本哈根大学获得任教资格(Danish Disputats) 2002年,34岁的扎哈维成为哥本哈根大学哲学教授、主体性研究中心主任。

                                     

2. 著作

扎哈维的著述集中在现象学(尤其是胡塞尔哲学)和心灵哲学。他的作品广涉及如下主题:自我、自我意识、主体间性和社会认知等。扎哈维还是现象学与认知科学刊物的合编者。扎哈维的著作已被翻译为超过25种语言。

                                     

3. 前反思的自我意识,以及最小自我

扎哈维著作的一个中心任务是对经验、自我(self)和自我意识之间的关系加以分析。在一些著作和文章中,扎哈维捍卫了前反思的自我意识的存在和意义,而且赞成:我们的经验生活由某种形式的自我意识所刻画,这种自我意识比反思的自我意识更原本、更具基础性,我们可以在各种反思中发现它。他还认为,一种意在严肃对待我们经验生活之主体维度的意识理论,需要运作于最低限度的自我概念之上,扎哈维称之为最小自我或经验自我。整体来看,扎哈维拒绝对意识进行还原主义的处理,坚持主体性的理论意义以及第一人称视角。

在处理这些问题时,扎哈维与精神病学家、发展心理学家和佛教学者有一致之处,也有争端和分歧。对扎哈维持批评态度的人,要么否认自我的存在,要么是否认前反思的自我意识。

                                     

4. 移情、社会认知

扎哈维的另一部分工作集中在主体间性、移情和社会认知等问题上。扎哈维的博士论文捍卫了主体间性的现象学研究进路。之后他在大量文章和出版物中重点研究移情的作用和结构。扎哈维认为,个体间的理解具有身体和语境特征,还批评了所谓" 心灵理论”争论的主导性地位,包括模拟理论和理论-理论(theory-theory)。

                                     

5. 羞感与集体意向性

自2010年以来,扎哈维日益关注社会情感和社会本体论问题。他的一些著述相关于羞感、共享情感、" 我们”经验、集体意向性,以及" 我-你”关系的重要性。

                                     

6. 现象学

除了上述一系列课题,扎哈维还出版了关于现象学,尤其是胡塞尔的著作。他主张,现象学是当代哲学和经验科学不应忽视的一个有很强说服力的话语体系。扎哈维对胡塞尔关于主体间性、自我和时间意识的分析加以扩展,并在许多出版物中讨论了胡塞尔先验哲学的本质,以及现象学的形而上学含义。在扎哈维的全部工作中,他自始至终反对把胡塞尔做过度简单化的解释,把胡塞尔刻画成一个唯我论者和主观的观念论者,而是强调了胡塞尔现象学与后胡塞尔现象学家(特别是梅洛-庞蒂)的工作之间的连贯性。

                                     

7. 出版物(不完全)

扎哈维出版的著作包括:

  • The Phenomenological Mind. 2nd Edition with Shaun Gallagher. Routledge 2012. Translated into Spanish, Polish
  • Self and Other: Exploring Subjectivity, Empathy, and Shame. Oxford University Press 2014.
  • Phänomenologie für Einsteiger. Wilhelm Fink Verlag 2007.
  • Self-awareness and Alterity. Northwestern University Press 1999. Translated into Japanese
  • The Phenomenological Mind with Shaun Gallagher. Routledge 2008.
  • Husserls Phenomenology. Stanford University Press 2003.
  • Intentionalität und Konstitution: Eine Einführung in Husserls Logische Untersuchungen. Museum Tusculanum Press 1992.
  • Husserl und die transzendentale Intersubjektivität. Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996. Translated into English
  • Subjectivity and Selfhood: Investigating the first-person perspective. MIT Press 2005. Translated into Chinese

扎哈维还参与编辑过超过10卷著作,包括:

  • The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology. Oxford University Press 2012.


                                     

8. 所获荣誉、奖项

  • Elected member of Institut International de Philosophie in 2001
  • The second revised edition of The Phenomenological Mind was selected by Choice as a 2012 Outstanding Academic Title.
  • The Silver Medal from the Danish Royal Society of Sciences and Letters 2000
  • The Elite Research Prize of the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation 2006. The award is given to outstanding young researchers of the highest international standard, which have made an extraordinary contribution to strengthen Danish research.
  • The Carlsberg Foundations Research Prize 2011 from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. The prize was awarded in connection with the 200 year anniversary of brewer J.C. Jacobsen, founder of the Carlsberg Breweries and the Carlsberg Foundation.
  • The Danish Association of Masters and PhDs’ Humanities Research Award 2013
  • Elected member of the Danish Royal Society of Sciences and Letters in 2007
  • Appointed Honorary President of The Nordic Society for Phenomenology 2014
  • The Edward Goodwin Ballard Prize in Phenomenology 2000


                                     

9. 相关书目

  • Zahavi, D., Salice, A. 2017, Phenomenology of the we: Stein, Walther, Gurwitsch. In J. Kiverstein ed.: The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the Social Mind pp. 515-527. New York: Routledge.
  • Zahavi, D. 2012, Self, consciousness, and shame. In D. Zahavi ed.: The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology pp. 304-323. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Zahavi, D. 2015, You, me, and we: The sharing of emotional experiences. Journal of Consciousness Studies 22/1-2, 84-101.
  • Metzinger, T. 2006, Reply to Zahavi: The Value of Historical Scholarship. Psyche 12.
  • Zahavi, D. 2007, Expression and empathy. In D.D. Hutto & M. Ratcliffe eds.: Folk Psychology Re-Assessed pp.25-40. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Zahavi, D. 2008a, Simulation, projection and empathy. Consciousness and Cognition 17, 514-522.
  • Zahavi, D. 2011b, Empathy and Direct Social Perception: A Phenomenological Proposal. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2/3, 541-558.
  • Zahavi, D. 2003a, Husserls Phenomenology. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Zahavi, D. 2003b, Phenomenology and metaphysics. In D. Zahavi, S. Heinämaa, H. Ruin eds.: Metaphysics, Facticity, Interpretation. Phenomenology in the Nordic Countries pp. 3-22. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-Boston.
  • Howell, R. J. & Thompson, B. 2017, Phenomenally Mine: In Search of the Subjective Character of Consciousness, Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8, 103-127.
  • Zahavi, D. 2005, Subjectivity and Selfhood: Investigating the first-person perspective. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Schear, J. 2009, Experience and Self-Consciousness. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 1441, 95-105
  • Zahavi, D. 2002, Merleau-Ponty on Husserl. A reappraisal. In T. Toadvine & L. Embree eds.: Merleau-Pontys Reading of Husserl pp. 3-29. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • Zahavi, D. 2011a, The Experiential Self: Objections and Clarifications. In Siderits, M., Thompson, E., Zahavi, D. eds.: Self, No Self? Perspectives from Analytical, Phenomenological, & Indian Traditions pp.56-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rochat, Ph., Zahavi, D. 2011, The uncanny mirror: A re-framing of mirror self-experience. Consciousness and Cognition 20, 204-213.
  • Zahavi, D. 1996, Husserl und die transzendentale Intersubjektivität: Eine Antwort auf die sprachpragmatische Kritik. Phaenomenologica 135. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Zahavi, D. 2008c, Phenomenology. In Moran, D. ed.: Routledge Companion to Twentieth-Century Philosophy pp. 661-692. London: Routledge.
  • Zahavi, D. 2010, Empathy, Embodiment and Interpersonal Understanding: From Lipps to Schutz. Inquiry 53/3, 285-306.
  • Gallagher, S., Zahavi, D. 2012, The Phenomenological Mind. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge.
  • Zahavi, D. 2014, Self and Other: Exploring subjectivity, empathy and shame. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Zahavi, D. 1999, Self-awareness and Alterity. A Phenomenological Investigation. Studies in Phenomenology & Existential Philosophy. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
  • Zahavi, D. 2008b, Internalism, Externalism, and Transcendental Idealism. Synthese 160/3, 355-374.
  • Zahavi, D. 2017, Phenomenology, empathy, and mindreading. In H.L. Maibom ed.: The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Empathy pp. 33-43. New York: Routledge.
  • Zahavi, D., Rochat, Ph. 2015, Empathy ≠ sharing: Perspectives from phenomenology and developmental psychology. Consciousness and Cognition 36, 543-553.
  • Zahavi, D., Parnas, J. 2003, Conceptual Problems in Infantile Autism Research: Why Cognitive Science Needs Phenomenology. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10/9, 53-71
  • Parnas, J., Sass, L.A., Zahavi, D 2008, Recent developments in philosophy of psychopathology. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 21, 578-584